What is Ulcerative Colitis?, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

What is Ulcerative Colitis?, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

What is Ulcerative Colitis?

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon and rectum becomes inflamed and develops small open sores, called ulcers.

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies like colonoscopy.

There are various symptoms and causes so if you face any of them then immediately consult a doctor. The doctor will diagnose and plan a better treatment strategy for you.

What is Ulcerative Colitis?, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis

This inflammation and ulceration can lead to various symptoms such as:

  • Abdominal Pain: Patients often experience abdominal discomfort or cramping.
  • Diarrhea: The inflammation causes the colon to empty frequently, resulting in diarrhea. This diarrhea may contain blood or pus.
  • Rectal Bleeding: Ulcers in the colon’s lining may bleed, leading to bloody stools.
  • Patients may feel a sudden and urgent need for a bowel movement.
  • Fatigue: Chronic inflammation and frequent bowel movements can lead to fatigue and weakness.
  • Weight Loss: Severe cases of ulcerative colitis may result in weight loss due to malabsorption of nutrients or loss of appetite.
  • Other Symptoms: Some patients may experience additional symptoms such as fever, loss of appetite, and joint pain.

Causes of Ulcerative Colitis

  • People with a family history of ulcerative colitis are at a higher risk.
  • In ulcerative colitis, the immune system mistakenly attacks the lining of the colon and rectum, leading to inflammation.
  • Certain environmental factors, such as diet, stress, and exposure to certain bacteria or viruses, may trigger.
  • Changes in the balance of bacteria in the gut may also play a role in the development of ulcerative colitis.

Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

Treatment for ulcerative colitis aims to reduce inflammation and control symptoms.

  • Medications: Doctors often prescribe medications to relieve symptoms.
  • Dietary Changes: Some patients find relief by avoiding trigger foods like dairy, spicy foods, or high-fiber foods. Maintaining a well-balanced diet with good nutrients is important.
  • Lifestyle Changes: Managing stress through relaxation techniques, regular exercise, and getting enough sleep can help reduce symptoms.
  • Surgery: In severe cases where medications aren’t effective or complications arise, surgery to remove the colon may be necessary.

Dr. Kailash Mishra
Director & Gastroenterologist Consultant
Prime Gastro Liver Clinic

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